A successful website is a website that engages its visitors very quickly and keeps them on the website for longer. Only the best websites that grab the attention of visitors from the moment they arrive will be worth the time to explore further, and there are a number of things that you can do with your website to help it become more engaging as soon as someone lands on it. [Read more…]
Owned and operated by Google, Google AdWords is a platform created for online advertisement. This platform is for helping businesses develop their online presence in reaching more existing and new customers in different parts of the world. Google AdWords is currently being used by millions of businesses worldwide in reaching customers effectively and optimizing their sales. [Read more…]
For encrypting a file or other information stored in a computer means to convert it into a secret code and that it can’t be used or understood until it is decoded or decrypted. you might want to encrypt the files that contained a secret formula for a new invention, or some financial plans that your competitors would love to know about them in advance. When you encrypt something then the computer ask you to create a password. After that, no one will be able know about the information unless they have the same password. Encryption hides your data from unauthorized third party users . This is the process of encoding data which prevent the data from viewing or modifying by the unauthorized person.
Data Link Layer has number of specific functions to carryout. These functions include:-
- Providing a well defined service interface to the Network Layer.
- Determining how the bits of the Physical Layer are grouped into frames.
- Dealing with transmission errors.
- Regulating the flow of frames so that slow receiver are not overcome by a fast sender. [Read more…]
This protocol also provides for one directional flow of data from sender to receiver. The communication channel is once again assumed to be error-free, as in protocol Unrestricted Simplex Protocol. However, in this case the receive has only a finite buffer capacity and a finite processing speed, so the protocol must explicitly prevent the sender from flooding the receiver with data faster than it can be handled. [Read more…]
It is the simplest though unrealistic protocol with the nick name “UTOPIA“. In this case data is transmitted in one direction only. Both the transmitting and receiving Network Layer are always ready and the proceeding time can be ignored. An infinite buffer space is available and also communication between a Data Link Layer never damages or looses frames. [Read more…]
The design issues deals with how to make sure all frames are eventually delivered to the Network Layer at the destination and in the proper order. The usual way to ensure reliable delivery is to provide the sender with some feedback about whatever happening at the other end of the line. Typically the protocol calls of the receiver to send back special control frames bearing positive and negative acknowledgments about the incoming frames. If the sender receives a positive acknowledgment about a frame, it knows the frame has arrived safely. On the other hand, a negative acknowledgment means that something has gone wrong and the frame must be transmitted again. [Read more…]
A network contains a large number of computers and various intermediate devices. All these devices and computers must be joined so as to transfer data from one computer of network to any other computer. This can be possible by using two methods:-
The first method is to create an individual wire link from every computer to every other computer (like fully connected topology) this method requires a lot of wiring and will increase the system cost and efficiency. The other method is to use a technique of switching. In a switched network, special devices called switches, are used to join two or more computers and intermediate devices with each other. Switches can create temporary connection between two devices attached to the switch. These devices are hardware devices that may have a software component in them. When a particular virtual path is to be set, the switch is set accordingly, to create a path between two nodes. [Read more…]
Networks can be divided into two categories i.e. those using point-to-point connections and those using broadcast channels. Broadcast channels are sometimes referred to as multi-access channels or random access channels. The protocols used to determine who goes next on a multi-access channel belong to a sublayer of the data link layer called the MAC (Medium Access Control) sublayer. The MAC sublayer is specially important in LAN’s, nearly all of which use a multi-access channel as the basis of their communication. WAN’s in contrast use the point-to-point links except for satellite networks. [Read more…]
In order to provide services to the Network Layer, the Data Link Layer must use the service provided to it by the Physical Layer. What the Physical Layer does is, to accept a raw bit stream and attempt to deliver the data to the destination. The bit stream is not guaranteed to be error free. the numbers of bits received may be less than or equal to or more than number of bits were transmitted and they have a different values. It is the task of Data Link Layer to provide the error free transmission of the data. The usual approaches is for the Data Link Layer to break the bit stream up into discrete frames and compute the checksum for each frame. When the frame arrives at the destination the checksum is recomputed. If the newly computed checksum is different from the one contained in the frame, the Data Link Layer knows that an error has occurred and takes the necessary steps to deal with it. [Read more…]