Networking is the connection of the autonomous computers. Networking is needed so as to make a web of the computers. It can be according to the AREAS, i.e. LAN, MAN, and WAN.LAN for Local Area Network, MAN for metropolitans Area Network and Wide Area Networks.
(i).GUIDED media is that in which the communication is connection oriented.It includes:-
TWISTED PAIR, PVC, and FIBER OPTICS.
TWISTED PAIR wire is made up of copper wires and it is effective in transferring the data to the destination reliably only if the destination is inside 900km. After that noise will occur in the channel. They are non-expensive in cost also. It is suitable for networking in smaller area like in an office.
Co-Axial Cables(PVC) wires are also made up of copper wires but it is covered with the copper mesh, so that the data will not be lost. It can transfer the data beyond 900km. It is expensive than TWISTED PAIR. It is not suitable for covering larger distance, so here fiber optics was introduced.
FIBER OPTICS used light waves for transferring the data. The data will be in electronic form and will be changed to the light wave by the converter. As we all know that the light wave travels with the speed of 300,000km per second, so the data will be transferred very fast. As the data is in the form of light so the loss of the data is also negligible. This feature made it popular for applying the media for transferring the data.Moreover, FIBER OPTICS are used for long distance data transmission.It transfers the data beyond 1200 km. FIBER OPTICS also acquire less space as a fiber optic wire is as thin as a human hair. So this was the biggest achievement in communication medias. But the drawback of the FIBER OPTICS is only that it is very expensive.
(ii). UNGUIDED media is a connection less communication media, where the data is transferred in two ways:-
MICROWAVE AND SATELLITE
MICROWAVE are electromagnetic radiations with wavelength ranges from 1 mm to 1 m. Microwaves technique was used in transmitters (antennas). By seeing the drawbacks of connection oriented communication media, this was introduced. Here, there is one transmitting source that transfers the data in microwave form which is then by repeater was forwarded(so that the data is not lost due to covering of large distances). Then at the end (destination) the signal is amplified and the normal signal is retrieved.
But the drawback in microwave was that, it was suitable for even surfaces only. Like if the earth surface is uneven then microwave transmission will fail in giving the reliable output. Due to this drawback, Satellite communication was invented.
SATELLITE communication is the biggest source of transferring the data. The channels which we see in our T.V. is from far flung places, but how then we are able to watch them?? Broadband are very famous application.
This question will be solved, SATELLITE grabs the channels from different countries and states and then it transfers the signal to the destination. During the transmission from to the satellite, there will be some data loss. This will be retrieved by the satellite(as it has covered a distance of 3000km which is the distance of earth and satellite) via amplifier. When the satellite transfers the signal to the earth(at different location) then amplification will be done at the destination end(where a dish antenna will grab the signal).
This is the relevant method for data transmission for distant places where connection oriented communication media would cost very much. So, as comparison with others Satellite communication media gives a better output for transferring the data to distant places.
Networking is the connection of the autonomous computers. Networking is needed so as to make a web of the computers. It can be according to the AREAS, i.e. LAN, MAN, and WAN. LAN for Local Area Network, MAN for metropolitans Area Network and Wide Area Networks.